This was the time of the Defiance Campaign, launched in 1952; the Campaign made its mark on 26 June of the same year in Port Elizabeth, when the harbours, the city and everything came to a total halt. Definition of Christianity. It is therefore not surprising that Christianity was once the primary context for a number of communities (cf. [ Links ]. But sometimes … John Philip believed that Christianity could not be propagated "without developing the autonomy of all individuals - or without political, social and economic freedom and civil rights for all" (Nkomazana 1998:47). Referring to this collaboration in Kenya during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, Urch (1971:251) writes: "The traders and missionaries believed an educated population to be a precondition for the spread of commerce and Christianity; the first European educational ventures were a direct product of their activities." In 1749, Thomas Bacon gave a sermon specifically to the black slaves of America. Mtuze (2003:2) rightly asserts: "The study shows very clearly that the missionaries, consciously or unconsciously, had a double agenda in that they were also de facto agents of the colonial powers who subjugated the propagation of the Word to cultural and political imperialism." The missionary and the medical practitioner were therefore equally significant as far as the spread of Christianity was concerned. . The act of separating the body of Christ in such manner violated one most important principles of the Eucharist: unity and equality in Christ. Good expresses this even more strongly by saying: The idea that medical care for Africans should be subordinate and instrumental to the goal of spiritual salvation - especially strong among Protestant missions gradually tempered to accommodate the practical view that the treatment of disease, relief of suffering, and training of Africans as medical auxiliaries constituted worthy ideals of Christian service in their own right (Good 1991:1). New perspectives on the history of African Christianity. From the above conflicts, we can see that although Christianity has made some impact on Igbo people, it has not totally changed their worldview. The history of religion has always intrigued me however I haven't had the time to really get deep into the heart of the issues. This brave stance stemmed from a genuine Christian conviction that Africans, like all human beings, were created in the image of God and therefore deserved both just and dignified treatment. Now, pressing issue that arises is that in most cases, the urban areas cannot supply as many job openings as required, which results in many unemployed urbanites. The Protestant churches, in particular, were advocates of mass education, because of their emphasis on the need for all believers to read the Bible in his or her own language. Two thousand years later, Christian presence has left indelible marks on the continent—some positive, some less so. Africa, and specifically Nigeria is subject to many problems, including corruption, greed, continued sexual immorality … This continues, even intensifies. 1970. In short, the gospel message brought about real transformation, transformation that instilled divine principles and humaneness in the socio-political lives of African people. Challenging issues in African Christianity. A. Karl Marx termed Christianity an opiate of the masses, a tool of exploitation. People saw that converting slaves to Christianity was a way to control them; but for the slaves, what began negatively would eventually come to benefit them. Christianity has indeed made a mark which keeps people talking. Even further, in its Trinitarian dimension the body of Christ counts for an interrelatedness of humanity and creation." Communities were more capable of rebellion than a single individual. By the mid-1980s, then, prophetic Christians were playing a significant role in exposing the illegitimacy of the South African government and in empowering the liberation movement. This paper analyses how national identity, religion and institutions explain educational outcomes in former colonies by studying the effect of Christian missionaries in the past on current education in former colo- nies in Africa. This bitter conflict has led to wanton destruction of lives and property, and this has become a source of great worry to the writers. All of them were imbedded in positive and negative categories as explained by;-The missionary societies converted the west African people and generally in the whole of Africa into Christianity. Woodberry & Shah (2004:53) therefore state: "Research also shows a consistent association of education with democracy. The words "effect", "power", "impression" and "influence" are the essence of the term "impact". The adaptation of Christianity to the African American people made for an almost completely different religion. Gifford (2008:276) states: "In Kenya at the time of writing there are seven public universities, but they are now outnumbered by private ones, nearly all Christian (mostly, but not exclusively mainline). You seem to have a good spirit which also allows different points of views to be shared without condemnation. Practical Theology in South Africa 20(2), 53-71. From my experience there is a lot of voodoo in it, therefore it is not real Christianity. Your efforts are noteworthy but limited in perspective as it relates to the African slave religion. In later years, black Africans managed to salvage, at massive cost (including death), their self-respect, self-love and pride in their blackness, largely thanks to the Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa and elsewhere in Africa. Thousands of people are killed in terrorist attacks that happen in the name of religion. The renewal of African moral values, in African Renaissance, edited by Malegapuru William Makgoba. By the end of the 2nd century it had reached the region around Carthage.In the 4th century, the Aksumite empire in modern-day Eritrea and Ethiopia became one of the first regions in the world to adopt Christianity as an official religion and the Nubian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia followed two centuries later. This happened when Christian assemblies were shifted by Constantine from homes to the basilica, buildings modelled on Roman courthouse (Miles 2009:5). Available: http://www.guardian.co.uk/word/2011/dec/21/Jacob-zuma-blames-christianity. Once it was introduced to Africa, Christianity slowly spread from Alexandria to Ethiopia. The Alexandria-based church initially used Greek, and it was not until the late 2nd century that both the liturgy and the scriptures were translated into three native languages. Bacon gave three reasons why slavery was just: 1) God made men and [the slaves], and he made them to serve him. 2000. The South African Council of Churches and opposition political parties castigated the President for his statements, statements which displayed gross disregard for the role of Christian churches in the liberation of South Africa. All these people inspired their followers by referring to Christianity's message of hope to the oppressed, and by conducting themselves as true followers of Christ. Pretoria: UNISA Press. Research by Agadjanian and Sen (2007:362) found that mainline church members were more knowledgeable about HIV and AIDS than those who belonged to Pentecostal/healing churches. 2000. The Society of Malawi Journal 62(1), 62-65. Slaves were not to be secretive about anything and were supposed remember that God is always watching. Sub-Saharan Africa is known for being a "home" to a myriad of diseases and epidemics, diseases and epidemics that plagued the people of this region for centuries before the introduction of medical science. Negative effects of colonialism. 207-214, Raboteau, Albert. Christianity was something that the white men did. Jacob Zuma blames Christianity for breakdown of South African traditions, The Guardian, Wednesday 21 December 2011, 17.02 GMT. Muslims crossed current Djibouti and Somalia to seek refuge in present-day Eritrea and Ethiopia during the Hijrah (Arabic: هِـجْـرَة ‎, 'Migration') to the Christian Kingdom of Aksum. 1. This, in turn, resulted in demands for government schools that did not offer religious training. The church versus the Spirit: the impact of Christianity on the treatment of women in Africa. The article showed how Christianity shaped the sub-Saharan African landscape - for both better and worse. However, the responsibility for the educational task also resided with commercial bodies. It was a tool that they used to justify slavery. Blaise Pascal, Isaac Newton, and Samuel Morse were scientists who held Christianity and the Bible in the highest regard. Here are ten ways missions has impacted Africa. Negative effects of Urbanization: • As stated above, most people move to the cities from the rural areas in the hope of better jobs. This requirement necessitated serious education initiatives on the part of Christian missionaries. Nonetheless, there are people who trust the church's ability to help, especially as a result of the church's teaching influence, which specifically warns against indulging in risky sex behaviour. Oxford University Press, 1998. European Review of Economic History 16(4), 1-21. Since northern Africa is heavily Muslim and southern Africa is heavily Christian, the great meeting place is in the middle, a 4,000-mile swath from Somalia in the east to Senegal in the west. The percentage is much higher in countries south of the Sahara: Over 60 percent of Ghana's 19 million people are Christian; 65 percent of Cameroonians are Christians. Dutch laws, customs and attitudes towards race were brought to South Africa and Dutch people became the ruling class until the Cape was taken over by the British in 1806. [ Links ], Manala, MJ. Church-based facilities were known to be humane and "people friendly", which obviously made them popular. Accessed on 2012/12/10. Available: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/impact. Logos: A Journal of Catholic thought and culture 4(1), 178-195. At first, few were converted because of the white mans’ aversion to and fear of black Christians, and the notion of them acquiring legal rights. I think religion has more negative impact than positive on our society. This influence is undoubtedly the result of the phenomenal growth of Christianity experienced in sub-Saharan Africa. Available: www.thearda.com/workingpapers/./img/revistas/she/v39n2/Church%20vs%20-Spirit%20Miles.p... Accessed on 2013/11/16. The bad side that Colonialism added to Africa will be considered in this section . The nineteenth century was therefore noted for the emergence and gradual increase of conflict between the two cultures (Mtuze 2003:8). Christianity captured their hearts and literally saved their souls. Walls, a former missionary in Sierra Leone and Professor Emeritus of the study of Christianity in the non-western world at the University of Edinburgh, views the twentieth century as "the most remarkable of the Christian centuries since the first" (Walls 2000:17). In Southern Africa, however, the transfer of power to an African majority was greatly complicated by the presence of entrenched white settlers. effects of missionaries in East Africa They spread Christianity and baptized many converts. Africa's Diabolical Entrapment: Exploring the Negative Impact of Christianity, Superstition and Witchcraft on Psychological, Structural and Scientific Growth in Black Africa! The Negative Charge: Christianity has been a repressive force against the advancement of civilization. The Dictionary of African Christian Biography The spread of the faith in Africa represents perhaps the most dramatic advance in all Christian history, and yet the names and stories of persons chiefly responsible are largely unknown. 2013. Another level at which the impact of Christianity proved to be detrimental was its undermining of women's roles in religious leadership (Miles 2009:1). In other words, Christian missionaries were aggressively vocal against the injustices meted out to, and oppression of, the native inhabitants. Agadjanian, V. & Soma, Sen 2007. The first key word is impact. On the one hand, missionaries were the first to invest in medicine in a number of countries. Slaves who were more docile and gullible would not be able free themselves from slavery; thus, it was a bad thing for them. The White Slave owner gave a "basterized" version of the scriptures and called it truth. Africa Renewal. Partially as a result of this, Africans in South Africa consciously chose and used African, rather than Christian, names (Pityana 1999:138). It is interesting to note that, even in those early days of mission history, non-state sponsored churches crossed the "gender barrier" in their quest to educate Africans. Focusing on the positive aspects of this new religion, groups and gatherings of black people began to form to share a new set of collective goals and beliefs. In South Africa, racial discrimination started - appallingly - in the church itself. These statistical data were indeed a positive forecast of great things to come following the indicative occurrences during Pentecost. [ Links ], The Free Dictionary.Com. It toyed with the slaves’ hope of freedom and made them believe that if they worked well, and were obedient, that they would be rewarded in the afterlife. This fact is also mentioned by Mtuze (2003:9), decrying the severity of the hurt caused to the Xhosas: "The expulsion and displacement of the amaXhosa from their original ancestral land was a wound that went deeper than the struggle for agricultural land, as land was associated with the burial places of revered ancestors, and kraals served as temples for sacrifices and other rituals." The encounter between Christianity and African traditional cosmologies produced a new situation, a situation with unique characteristics. Such socialisation drove women to passivity and quiescence in congregational worship, thus perpetuating discrimination against women in the Christian church. Their conversion and adaptation to Christianity held many positive and negative effects for the African Americans. General Education was the responsibility of missionary societies and "was to be primarily concerned with reading and writing with a view to proselytise and to train African teachers" (Urch 1971:254). Housewives, maids or mothers: some contradictions of domesticity for Christian women in Johannesburg, 1903-39. Christianity first acted as a slight justification of slavery but then became a stepping-stone toward African American emancipation from it. Sub-Saharan Africa refers to the region of Africa to the south of the Sahara Desert (The Free Dictionary.com). 2009. 4 UNCTAD, 2019, Economic Development in Africa. Crying in the wilderness: the struggle for justice in South Africa, edited and introduced by John Webster. Are these amenities (orphanages and old-age homes) not something to be thankful for? Christianity was undoubtedly the religion created by those who conquered african nations. This agitation resulted in both reforms and the sprouting of "African Initiated Churches." Urch (1971:254) writes: "The governor appointed an advisory board composed of government officials, commercial men, representatives of the missions, and members of the settlers' associations to assist the director." My article is a short synopsis of a very issue which was written from the point of view of the 4 references that I cited. Dive into this presentation and learn of the negative effects of the spread of Islam through Western Africa. Christianity now was the glue that held the black communities together and pushed them forward towards and through to the civil rights movement. In the fifteenth century, Christianity came to Africa’s coastlines through forts established by European slave traders. The body of Christ represents the essence of unity. ; 75 percent of Zambians are Christians, and 78 percent of Uganda's 20 million people are Christians, . [ Links ], The Oxford University Press Dictionary 2012. Education was viewed by these churches as of primary importance in the achievement of these goals. However, the ugly side of Chrisitianity in Africa cannot be ignored. That one area is the field of Christian theology and Christian religious scholarship generally." Regarding Malawi, Mkandawire (2009:63) states that, by the time Dr Law left Livingstonia in 1927 after 52 years of missionary service, several evil social practices had been abolished in Malawi "for instance, slave trading had been stopped and the trial by poison ordeal was no longer practiced". In 313 Constantine ended official persecution in the Roman Empire and in 380 Theodosius 1 recognized it as the state religion. (Bacon 209-210). Catechists were also trained who helped in the spread of Christianity for example, in Uganda by 1911 many people had been converted and many cathedrals and churches were built like the Kikuyu churches (Charismatic Arathi or spirit churches.) One of the reasons why most of the missionary attempts failed in Nigeria was because of the way missionaries presented Christianity. Yeshua was said to have come from the tribe of judah who all married cannanite women (descendants of ham) more evidence of an African messiah. Ross (1955:164) refers to the importance of Christianity in the introduction of health care and medical science: "... Christian missions have been almost everywhere the introducer of western medical, surgical, and public health methods, and the pioneer trainer of Africans in these skills." Our second key word is Christianity. The church literally became, in the words of Walshe (1991:28), "a site of the struggle". 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